Frontiers of Entrepreneurship


Data was collected from individual state websites, state legislators and the National Conference of State Legislators. 

State Executive Actions: Below are the state executive actions categories we have identified.  In an effort to distill the executive actions we did not include stay-at-home orders and other social distancing guidelines.

  • Business Assistance: typically loans or grants for businesses, may include relaxations of regulations to keep revenues up (e.g. alcohol sales in to-go orders)
  • Family Assistance: assistance not related to unemployment benefits, such as expanding welfare payments, delaying tax deadlines, or creating relief funds for individuals
  • Health Access: increased access to healthcare not specifically related to COVID-19, typically through relaxation of telemedicine regulations or prescription fill limits
  • Housing: increased housing security by stopping evictions and/or foreclosures
  • Medical Response: increased access to COVID-19 related healthcare, such as mandating insurance coverage of testing or relaxing regulations to increase hospital bed availability
  • Supply Access: suspension of regulations to allow faster transportation of essential supplies
  • Task Force: creation of a task force with a focus on the economic impacts of COVID-19; also includes regional coalitions of states
  • Unemployment: expansion of unemployment benefit availability
  • Utilities: moratorium on utility disconnections due to nonpayment

In addition to board executive actions, we further identified actions relating to business assistance. Note, every date requested a SBA emergency disaster declaration, thus we did not include these requests. These actions fall into the below specific categories:

  • Restaurant and Hospitality: Specific actions effecting these industries such as a change in alcohol regulations
  • Loans and Grants: Business specific Loan and grant programs
  • Payment and Tax Relief: Actions changing payment deadlines or tax relief
  • Commercial Real Estate: actions regarding evictions to commercial real estate
  • Regulation Relief: Non-tax relief to businesses regulations
  • Other Business Support: programs or actions that do not fall into the other categories
  • Charitable Funds: Charitable funds to support COVID-19 relief efforts with business relief component
  • Utilities: actions regarding shut off or suspension of services for businesses due to lack of payment
  • Small Business: programs or actions that do not fall into the other categories but are aimed specifically at small businesses
  • Childcare Business: effecting childcare businesses or operating regulations

State Actions Relating to Economic Reopening: Below are the categories we have identified relating to state economic reopening. 

  • Outdoor and Recreation: Pools, gyms, parks, beaches, camping, etc.
  • Retail: relating to retail such as allowing curbside pickup, reopening, and guidelines for how many people in a store etc.
  • Food and Drink: Restaurant dining, bars, breweries, etc.
  • Personal Services: Hair salons, nail salons, barbershop, tanning beds etc.
  • Entertainment: Theaters, bowling alleys, museums, libraries, movie theaters, racetracks, gaming etc.
  • House of Worship: Relating to Houses of Worship
  • Health: Allowing non-essential medical procedures, requiring masks
  • Industry/Offices: Pertaining to re-opening non-retail businesses and industries. Such as regulations on how many people can be in an office building etc.
  • Manufacturing/Construction: Retailing to manufacturing and construction industries.
  • Travel: relating to travel restrictions
  • School and Childcare: Relating to schools and childcare reopening, school sports, summer camps, etc.
  • Nursing Homes: Relating to nursing home visitation.

State Legislation Relating to COVID-19: We collected all enacted legislation relating to COVID-19. While we recognize the difficultly of categorizing each individual legislation into one specific category, we have begun to identify broad categories to enable broad analysis. Legislation relating to formalizing a state of emergency has been excluded. These categories include:

    • Budget: Relating to budget or additional appropriations due to COVID-19
    • Business/Economic Assistance: Relating to business and economic assistance such as new loan programs etc. 
    • Criminal Justice: Relating to changes to court procedures
    • Education: Relating to school calendar, etc. 
    • Election: Changes in election protocol

Employment, Labor and Retirement

    : Relating to unemployment benefits, unemployment tax and retirement. 

  • Expansion of Governors' Powers: Relating to either expansion the governor's powers or additional requirements on the Governor when issues executive actions. 
  • Federal Funding: Relating to legislation enabling states to receive and distribute federal funding
  • Government Rules and Regulation: Changes in rules and regulations due to the impact of COVID-19
  • Health: Measure relating to various health aspect of combating COVID-19 
  • Human Services and Housing: Relating to human Services programs and housing
  • Liability: Legislation relating to COVID-19 liability
  • Price Gauging: Price gauging prevention
  • Relief Packages: Broad COVID-19 relief packages that do not fall into an individual category.
  • Tax: Relating to changes in the tax code or tax relief

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